Luo, Rudy, 1994

Model Status

This is the original unchecked version of the model imported from the previous CellML model repository, 24-Jan-2006.

Model Structure

A subsequent pair of papers by Ching-hsing Luo and Yoram Rudy (1994a; 1994b) further developed the Luo-Rudy I 1991 model by addressing some of the issues which were not investigated in their original study. In particular, the LR-II model incorporates a more thorough description of the processes which regulate intracellular calcium ion concentration and the movement of calcium ions through the cell and to and from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (see the figure below).

Their mathematical model of the cardiac ventricular action potential is based upon experimental data from guinea pig ventricular cells, however it provides a framework for modelling other types of ventricular cells with appropriate modifications to account for interspecific heterogeneity.

The complete original paper reference is cited below:

A Dynamic Model of the Cardiac Ventricular Action Potential - Simulations of Ionic Currents and Concentration Changes, Ching-hsing Luo and Yoram Rudy, 1994, Circulation Research , 74, 1071-1097. PubMed ID: 7514509

The Luo-Rudy II ventricular model has become a classical study. Several more recent ventricular and atrial cell models have been published using the Luo-Rudy dynamic model as their foundation and building upon those equations. Since the model was published in 1994, it has been updated several times, incorporating new experimental data taken from papers written by other authors. These modifications have been taken into consideration in another CellML model (please refer to the Updated Luo-Rudy Mammalian Ventricular Model II).

A schematic diagram describing the ionic currents, pumps and exchangers that are captured in the LR-II model. The intracellular compartment is the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), which is divided into the two subcompartments, the network SR (NSR) and the junctional SR (JSR). Ca2+ buffers are present in both the cytoplasm and the JSR.